Say your small business client needs extra help during the summer and the entrepreneur’s teenaged child is searching for a job while school is out. The obvious solution? Hire the child.
Not only can this arrangement be mutually beneficial, it may provide tax breaks for both the child and the business owner.
For starters, the wages your child earns are taxable to him or her, just like they are for any other employee. However, the income can be sheltered from federal income tax by the standard deduction.
Under the new Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), the standard deduction for a single filer in 2018 is $12,000 – way above the amount most children will earn from a summer job. Also, consider that you may be earning less money as a result of paying your child to work in the summer, but you’re saving tax at the same time.
For instance, if you expect to be in the 24% tax bracket in 2018 and you pay your child $6,000 for the summer, you can save $1,440 (24% of $6,000), not to mention state tax savings.
A logical question: What about the “kiddie tax?” This tax generally applies to a dependent child under age 24 if unearned income exceeds in 2018 exceeds a $2,100 threshold.
Due to a change in the TCJA, the kiddie tax is now based on the tax rates for estates and trusts. (Previously, the tax was computed under the parents’ top tax rate.) But this tax only applies to unearned income such as investment earnings. It doesn’t affect earned income like wages from a job.
What’s more, the tax breaks don’t stop there. Here are several other important tax implications for hiring a child for the summer:
Business deductions: The wages paid to your child can be deducted by the business, the same as they would be for any employee. But you can’t arbitrarily inflate the amount. To be deductible, the wages must constitute a reasonable payment for services actually rendered.
Payroll tax savings: If your child is under age 18 and the business isn’t incorporated – for example, you may run a sole proprietorship -- the child’s earnings are exempt from FICA tax. A similar exemption applies to FUTA tax for a child under age 21. These payroll tax breaks can provide significant tax savings for the family.
Fringe benefits: When your child works for your company, he or she is eligible to receive tax-free fringe benefits for employees. This may include health insurance coverage, group-term life insurance coverage up to $50,000 and educational assistance plans. As with wages, payments under a qualified plan are deductible by the business.
IRAs: If your child has earnings from a summer job, he or she can contribute to a traditional or Roth IRA. The maximum contribution for a child in 2018 is the lesser of the amount earned or $5,500. Generally, contributions to a traditional IRA are deductible on your child's tax return. Although contributions to a Roth IRA can’t be deducted, the funds may be withdrawn tax-free in the future.
Other retirement plans: In addition, your child may be eligible to participate in a 401(k) or other qualified retirement plan, within generous limits. Your child may also benefit from “matching” contributions by the company. Again, these payments are deductible by the business.
As shown above, the tax breaks for hiring a child are plentiful, but this may not work out for everyone. Talk things over to see if it’s a good match.
Ken Berry, Esq., is a nationally known writer and editor specializing in tax, financial, and legal matters. During his long career, he has served as managing editor of a publisher of content-based marketing tools and vice president of an online continuing education company. As a freelance writer, Ken has authored thousands of articles for a...