How much is 2 plus 2?

In a classic book about the accounting profession some forty years ago, Unaccountable Accounting:  Games Accountants Play, Abraham Briloff recounts a supposedly true story suggesting the primary criterion corporations employed in selecting their public accounting firms.  In the event that you may not have heard this story, I wish to tell it here and now, since it may still have relevance in our current times.

Once upon a time in accounting land, there lived eight big giants:  Arthur Andersen; Ernst & Ernst; Haskins & Sells; Lybrand, Ross Bros. & Montgomery; Peat, Marwick, Mitchell; Price Waterhouse; Touche, Ross; and Arthur Young.  These public accounting firms were regarded as gods by everyone in the business community and the accounting profession.  Whenever they spoke, everyone listened.  And whatever they signed, the business community accepted as gospel.

An executive of a corporation wishing to go public interviewed the partners of these various "Big Eight" accounting firms.  He needed the seal of approval of a Big Eight firm on his financials in order to enhance the valuation of his corporation's stock offering.  In the interview, all he asked of the partners from each public accounting firm was the following simple question:  "How much is 2 plus 2?"  Virtually all of the partners of the Big Eight accounting firms, thinking that the executive was a complete idiot, simply replied, "4, of course",— that is, all but one partner from a Big Eight firm, who paused and remained silent for a considerable period of time, not replying with the obvious answer that the other interviewees had immediately spurted out.  His response, after some serious reflection, was, “What number did you have in mind?”  Needless to say, upon hearing what he wanted to be understood, the executive selected this partner's public accounting firm.

Back then in 1972 when the book was written, Abraham Briloff did not think very highly of GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles), preferring his own acronym, CRAP (Cleverly Rigged Accounting Ploys), to describe the profession's accounting methodologies.  In fact, Briloff felt that the Big Eight firms in particular had been selling out their requisite professional posture of independence, especially in regard to their audit clients.

The question today, of course, is how much has really changed in the last 40 years?  I would be interested in hearing Briloff''s reply; I suspect that he might say, "not very much".  Abraham Briloff was, and remains so in his writings, an important gadfly and watchdog of the accounting profession, a voice of its collective conscience.  Regrettably, as long as accounting firms are hand picked by their clients, the question raised by Briloff many years ago will continue to haunt, if not tarnish, our profession:  how truly independent and objective can accountants afford to be?  Was Briloff too cynical believing that we as professionals would never bite the hands that feed us?  Or are we too willing to be naive?

This article is provided for informational purposes and is not intended to be construed as legal, accounting, or other professional advice. For further information, please consult appropriate professional advice from your attorney and certified public accountant. 

Have a tax or an accounting question? Please feel free to submit it to William Brighenti, Certified Public Accountant, Hartford CPA Accountants. For information and assistance on any tax and accounting issue, please visit our website, Accountants CPA Hartford, and our blog, The Barefoot Accountant:  Accounting and Taxes Simplified.


If and only to the extent that this publication contains contributions from tax professionals who are subject to the rules of professional conduct set forth in Circular 230, as promulgated by the United States Department of the Treasury, the publisher, on behalf of those contributors, hereby states that any U.S. federal tax advice that is contained in such contributions was not intended or written to be used by any taxpayer for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed on the taxpayer by the Internal Revenue Service, and it cannot be used by any taxpayer for such purpose. The above tax advice was written to support the promotion or marketing of the accounting practice of the publisher and any transaction described herein. The taxpayer recipients of this offering memorandum should seek tax advice based on their particular circumstances from an independent tax advisor.

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The Barefoot Accountant—is a Certified Public Accountant, Certified QuickBooks ProAdvisor,  operating an accounting, tax, and QuickBooks consulting firm in Berlin, Connecticut, Accountants CPA Hartford, Connecticut, LLC.  Bill has instructed graduate and undergraduate courses in Accounting, Auditing, and other subjects at the University of Hartford, Central Connecticut State University, Hartford State Technical College, and Purdue University. He also taught GMAT and CPA Exam Review Classes at the Stanley H. Kaplan Educational Center and at Person-Wolinsky, and is certified to teach trade-related subjects at Connecticut Vocational Technical Schools. His articles on tax and accounting have been published in several professional journals as well as on several accounting websites. William was born and raised in New Britain, Connecticut, and served on the City's Board of Finance and Taxation as well as its City Plan Commission.  Bill is a crazed animal lover, feeding birds, squirrels, chipmunks, skunks, possums, stray cats, and any two-legged or four-legged critter traversing through his yard.  His backyard in Berlin, Connecticut has been certified as a habitat suitable for wildlife by the National Wildlife Federation.

Bill also writes an Accounting, QuickBooks, and Tax blog:  Accounting, QuickBooks, and Taxes by the Barefoot Accountant.  For entertaining articles, please see his listing at The Amazing Brighenti.

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